Fund Turnover Ratio Can Cost You Money

Cut-costs-with-low-turnoverSomething that isn’t often discussed about mutual funds is their turnover ratio. The turnover ratio is “the percentage of a mutual fund or other investment vehicle’s holdings that have been ‘turned over’ or replaced with other holdings in a given year” –Investopedia. A 100% turnover implies that the fund’s assets are completely sold and replaced every year. A 200% turnover implies that the fund’s assets are replaced every 6 months.

In general, actively managed mutual funds have a much higher turnover ratio than passively managed index mutual funds as the active managers trade stocks in an effort to beat their respective index. From Vanguard,

Turnover, or the buying and selling of securities within a fund, results in transaction costs such as commissions, bid-ask spreads, and opportunity cost. These costs, which are incurred by every fund, are not spelled out for investors but do detract from net returns. For example, a mutual fund with abnormally high turnover would be likely to incur large trading costs. All else equal, the impact of these costs would reduce total returns realized by the investors in the fund.

And from Investopedia, “A fund’s trading activity, the buying and selling of portfolio securities, is not included in the calculation of the expense ratio.” So we need to look elsewhere for how much turnover may cost.

Stefan Sharkansky published a study in 2002 titled, “Mutual Fund Costs: Risks Without Reward,” that looked at the impact of fees in the form of expense ratios, transaction costs in the form of turnover ratios, and taxes. (Note that “bps” stands for basis points. A basis point is 1/100 of a percent.)

We find a consistent negative relationship between fund turnover and performance in every category of fund that we examined. In Larger-Cap U.S. equity funds, we observed that on average, each 100% of turnover was expected to reduce the fund’s average annual pre-tax return by 124 bps (1.24%). Similarly, each 100% of turnover was shown to reduce the expected annual return by 255 bps for Smaller-Cap U.S. funds, 154 bps for International Equity funds, 43 bps for Municipal Bind funds and 9 bps for U.S. Government Bond funds. There results are within the range of other studies that have examined the costs of institutional trading and the relationship between fund turnover and performance.

Thus, we see that turnover costs are a hidden cost that investors need to be aware of. According to Morningstar, “It’s not uncommon to see turnover rates of 300% or more, even in funds that aren’t particularly aggressive.” This would mean an annual loss of at  least 3.72% for funds with a 300% turnover ratio. And that’s before taxes.

300% seems high to me, but 100% turnover is very common for actively managed funds. 1.24% in turnover costs is still a huge amount for a fund to overcome just to pull even with a comparable low-cost index fund. And that does not even take into account the 1% or more in fees that most active mutual funds charge. This would put costs for an actively managed fund with 100% annual turnover at roughly 2.2% or more. Ouch.

If these funds with high turnover are held in a taxable account, much of their turnover will be realized as short-term capital gains, especially if the turnover ratio is higher than 100%. That means you could be paying capital gains taxes at your marginal income tax rate for stock sales in the mutual fund for which you never received any income.

Note that the turnover ratio for Vanguard’s Total Stock Market mutual fund is 4%, which according to Sharkansky would reduce earnings by 5 bps. Add the fund’s expense ratio of 0.05% to get a total annual cost of 0.1%, and it is apparent that low-cost passive index funds can easily beat comparable actively managed funds. Especially if you are investing in a taxable account where the added taxes due to high turnover make it almost impossible for the active funds to beat low-cost index funds.

Do you hold actively managed funds? If so, do you know what their turnover ratio is, and how much that may be costing you?

How Often Do You Backup Your Computer?

backup-keyThere are several adages I have learned over the years with respect to computers.

  1. Save your work often. I hit the save key every time I get to a point in my work where I know I would be upset if that  work were to disappear.
  2. Backup your files. You should have multiple backup copies of important files.
  3. Murphy’s Law is in full force WRT computers. The most likely time for a computer to fail is when you need it the most.

Most people I know have multiple computers in their house. We have

Quantity Type Operating System
2 Laptop Windows 7
1 Desktop Windows 7
1 Desktop Xubuntu Linux 14.04
2 Mac Mini Mac OS X Snow Leopard
1 Tablet Android 4.4
1 Smartphone Android 4.3

The Windows computers send backups of all User files to the Linux server once a day. I don’t bother backing up the Mac Minis because their only function is to act as a video server. There are no user files on the Mac Minis. The Android tablet and smartphone data are stored in the Google cloud. And the Linux server backs itself up to a USB-mounted hard disk.

Because the backup data on the Linux server can be invaluable (at least to us), I keep two external backup disks of the data files. I additionally upload our family pictures that are stored on the Linux server to a cloud account.

Finally, all our important documents, such as federal and state tax forms, are printed out and kept in a file cabinet.

Because I am a computer geek, I use a program called rsync to backup the Windows and Linux computers. Rsync can be told to copy only the changed parts of any files to another disk or computer. The Linux computer uses an additional program, called rsnapshot, to create daily incremental backups. The incremental backup system is set up to allow me to recover deleted or corrupted files for up to 3 months.

I know my backup system is overkill for most people, but you should at least backup your important files (files you would be upset if lost) to an external hard disk or thumb drive. Both Windows and Mac OS X come with backup programs called Windows Backup and Time Machine, respectively). If you do not have an external backup disk, give yourself an early  Christmas present and purchase one. Make sure it has enough storage to hold everything on your computer hard disk. I see on that 1-TB (terabyte) external hard disks cost around $60. A 5-TB external Seagate hard disk is $150. How do these prices compare to how much your data is worth?

Remember that Murphy’s Law is always waiting to take out  your valuable data at the most inopportune time. Don’t let it happen to you. Please backup your computer data.

When did you last backup your computer?

Do Holiday Gifts Put You in Debt?

black-friday-crushThe headlines for Thanksgiving weekend are already declaring that this year’s holiday shopping season will be the biggest ever for retailers. From the National Retail Federation,

We are encouraged by what we’ve seen thus far with eager Thanksgiving Day and early Black Friday shoppers lining up for televisions, electronics, cashmere sweaters and toys. Reports of record-breaking online sales and store crowds point to a more confident and savvy holiday shopper who knows when, where and how to take advantage of all the promotions retailers are offering. It’s important to remember, however, that despite getting out of the gates quickly, the holiday season is a marathon and not a sprint and we expect retailers to continue to be extremely competitive as they chase after the $616 billion that is on the line this holiday season.

It is great fun to get into the spirit of giving, and buy those perfect gifts for the ones you love. But I have to tell you that I also agree with Joe Lucey, who wrote, “Save like the Grinch on Black Friday,” in which he points out that many people just cannot afford to buy Christmas gifts this year. He cites a Federal Reserve study in which they found that, “The average U.S. household credit card debt stands at $15,593.” Note that this is for “indebted households.” If you include all U.S. households, the average credit card debt is $7,274. (This is a little weird, because I would consider a household with a credit card debt of $7,274 to likely be indebted.)

Anyway, according to the Fed survey, the U.S. household consumer debt profile is

  • Average credit card debt: $15,593
  • Average mortgage debt: $153,184
  • Average student loan debt: $32,511

In total, American consumers are $11.62 trillion in debt (an increase of 3.4% from last year). This breaks down to,

  • $880.3 billion in credit card debt
  • $8.05 trillion in mortgages
  • $1.12 trillion in student loans (an increase of 10.5% from last year)

I agree with the Grinch sentiment: if you are already in debt, please do not dig yourself into deeper debt to buy presents over the holiday season. You will have an extremely difficult time reaching your financial goals if you add more debt during the holiday season.

To help everyone in our extended family with their Christmas budgets, and to keep from going crazy, we made an agreement with everyone to not buy any Christmas presents for any other adults in the family. This does not apply to kids, spouses, or significant others, although even this spending should be kept within debt-free budgets.

Do you have a gift-giving budget for the holidays? Have you ever gotten caught up in the holiday sale frenzy and ended up spending over budget?

Don’t Put All Your Eggs In One Basket

I was reminded of the old saying, “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket,” when the European Space Agency (ESA) lost touch with their Philae comet lander after only a couple days of operation. The lander apparently bounced when it first touched down on the comet, and ended up in a rather shady spot. There is not enough sunlight now hitting the lander for it to recharge its batteries. After 10 years of chasing down the comet, the ESA only got a few day’s worth of data from their lander.


I think the “eggs in one basket” saying also applies to personal finance and investing.

I like to have lots and lots of eggs through the purchase of low-cost index funds. This gives me very broad diversity at very low cost.

I hold my diversified index funds in Vanguard, Fidelity, and Schwab mutual funds or ETFs. You might wonder why I don’t just use Vanguard, since it typically has the lowest cost. My answer is that the others have brought the costs of their index funds in line with Vanguard, and I don’t want to get caught out if stuff hits the fan.

Mutual funds are not guaranteed or insured by the FDIC or any other government agency. The Securities Investors Protection Corporation (SIPC), a non government entity, will replace missing stocks and other securities in customer accounts held by its members up to $500,000, including up to $250,000 in cash, if a member brokerage or bank brokerage subsidiary fails, but these limits, like FDIC account limits, can be quite a bit lower than a married couple’s total retirement savings as they get near retirement.

From the brokerage websites,

Vanguard — Securities in your brokerage account are held in custody by Vanguard Brokerage Services, a division of Vanguard Marketing Corporation. Vanguard Marketing Corporation is a member of the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC). To offer greater protection and security, Vanguard Marketing Corporation has secured additional coverage from certain insurers at Lloyd’s of London and London Company Insurers for eligible customers with an aggregate limit of $250 million, incorporating a customer limit of $49.5 million for securities and $1.75 million for cash. Coverage provided by SIPC and certain Lloyd’s of London and London Company Insurers does not protect against loss of market value of securities.

Fidelity — All Fidelity brokerage accounts are covered by SIPC. In addition to SIPC protection, Fidelity provides its brokerage customers with additional “excess of SIPC” coverage. The excess coverage would only be used when SIPC coverage is exhausted. Like SIPC, excess protection does not cover investment losses in customer accounts due to market fluctuation. Total aggregate excess of SIPC coverage available through Fidelity’s excess of SIPC policy is $1 billion. Within Fidelity’s excess of SIPC coverage, there is no per customer dollar limit on coverage of securities, but there is a per customer limit of $1.9 million on coverage of cash awaiting investment.

Schwab — Protection for securities and cash by the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC): Accounts of Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. (including those held by clients of investment advisors with Schwab Institutional) are insured by SIPC for securities and cash in the event of broker-dealer failure. In addition to SIPC, Schwab’s coverage with Lloyd’s of London and other London insurers, combined with SIPC coverage, provides protection of securities and cash up to an aggregate of $600 million, and is limited to a combined return to any customer from a Trustee, SIPC, and London insurers of $150 million, including cash of up to $1,150,000. This additional protection becomes available in the event that SIPC limits are exhausted.

I also know that the underlying stocks within the index funds that my wife and I own will still have value, even though the brokerage firm might have failed, but getting our money out of these stocks might prove to be difficult and time consuming. Hence my desire to hold index funds through several different investment firms.

Do you have lots of eggs? Are they all in one basket, or several different baskets?

Adios to Motorcycles

bf-roadracingMy wife recently posted some throwback Thursday photos of me from the early 80s when I did some amateur roadracing. It was a lot of fun, but it was also expensive. I gave it up because it was at the time that I was just starting college. I think we can all agree that studying and learning needs to be a person’s main focus while in college, and that expensive extra-curricular activities, like roadracing, typically need to be put on hold.

When I finished college, I sold my old race bike and moved to Silicon Valley. After I landed my career job as a mechanical engineer, I took up amateur roadracing again as a hobby. But after a near crash at 150 mph, I decided to give that hobby a permanent rest.

saline-valleyAlong with roadracing, I also used to go dirtbiking with several friends from work. We road in all the off-road vehicle areas within a day’s drive of Silicon Valley. We also did a lot of riding in the Mojave Desert, Imperial Valley, and Baja California. We felt very adventuresome while riding the Baja 500 course. The picture to the right is in the White Mountains, looking back toward Saline and Death Valley.

Finally, I used to regularly commute to work on various motorcycles that I owned. I could ride in the car pool lanes, and get to work a lot faster than if I were driving in a car. I also got great gas mileage on the motorcycles. My old Honda XL-600 used to average more than 60 mpg.

Due to my failing health, though, I gave up all types of motorcycle riding a few years ago. My bones have become brittle, and I find that I bruise a lot easier than I used to.

I do not know how much money I am saving by giving up motorcycle riding. Roadracing was a very expensive hobby. Tires were more than $100 each. Crashing a motorcycle could cost in the thousands. I blew up the top end of my old RD-400, shown in the top pictures, a few times. Each blow up necessitated a complete rebuild of the engine. For those who care, I also roadraced a GSXR-750 at Sears Point and Willow Springs in the mid 80s.

Dirt-bike trips were not all that expensive. The cost was similar to a regular camping trip, but the wear and tear on my body could be pretty high.

So at this point in my life, I have to say, “Adios motorcycles. It’s been fun, but also dangerous and expensive.”

Have you had to give up a hobby due to cost or your age/health?